In this article for the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Mathias Czaika (University Professor, Danube University Krems), Marta Bivand Erdal (Research Professor, Peace Research Institute Oslo, PRIO) and Cathrine Talleraas (Senior Researcher, PRIO and Chr. Michelsen Institute) explore Europe’s external migration mix, considering three policy instruments which form part of the EU’s remote control of borders, namely visa policy, readmission agreements and resettlement programs.
Rather than analysing the impacts of these three policy instruments on complex patterns of migration flows into specific European countries or the EU, this article examines the patterns and inter-actions of these policies and how they are employed by European states.
Based on a collation of migration policy data for 31 European countries between 1990 and 2020, the authors find the “external migration policy mix appears heterogenous across different European states, but also within single European states, and vis-a-vis third country states, with whom various migration-relevant and externally oriented policies are negotiated. As a result, and perhaps surprisingly, the role of specific migration-relevant policies seems to be underestimated in strategic and overarching migration policymaking.”
Read the full open access article “Exploring Europe’s external migration policy mix: On the interactions of visa, readmission, and resettlement policies” here.